A friend, @optimizedchaos, over on Twitter, recommended that I write an entry here to address HATEOAS.

Agreed. Though, I think the acronym, itself, consists of an unfortunate combination of letters in the English language, I present

Hypermedia as the Engine of Application State (HATEOAS)

The term HATEOAS comes from a post that Dr. Roy T. Fielding (inventor of REpresentation State Transfer) posted on 20 Oct 2008 under the title REST APIs must be hyptertext-driven. I encourage you to click that link and read the post and the comments. Really, you should. Because, that link, that hypertext link and its associated functionality in the browser, represents a change in the state of the application in your browser, right now.

Clicked it? Good. Did you really? Are you lying? No? Ok. I trust you.

Dr. Fielding makes a series of very good points about REST and the way it works. For those of you that had trouble with understanding his dissertation or had trouble with understanding the precision of his points, let me try to help you come to a deeper understanding of REST. And, so the pedagogy begins.

A REST API should not be dependent on any single communication protocol,

though its successful mapping to a given protocol may be dependent on the availability of metadata, choice of methods, etc. In general, any protocol element that uses a URI for identification must allow any URI scheme to be used for the sake of that identification. [Failure here implies that identification is not separated from interaction.]

If you read my most recent post about REST, then you know that a URL can have the form with some other junk that doesn’t matter for this discussion:

protocol ':' '/' '/' authority path

For example, when you came to this page, your Web browser parsed the URL in the address bar to the values

protocol: http
authority: curtis.schlak.com
path: /2012/01/23/hateoas-a-follow-up-to-rest-for-r33lz.html

which ended up as an HTTP request with, at the minimum, the content

GET /2012/01/23/hateoas-a-follow-up-to-rest-for-r33lz.html HTTP/1.1
Host: curtis.schlak.com

Now, if Dr. Fielding ever finished his WAKA protocol, then he should have the ability to replace the “http” with “waka” and still have the ability to access your REST-based application. The identification of the resource, authority plus path (and some other junk for other examples), must not depend on the protocol.

Of course, I give you no guarantees that it works. REST just doesn’t rely on HTTP alone. If you change the protocol in your browser right now from “http” to “ftp,” you should get some indication that your browsing agent cannot connect to that resource. Duh. Ain’t got no FTP server running! However, if I did, and you passed an equivalent GET request for that resource, you should get this same page.

For an example of REST for another protocol, Paul Prescod wrote the illustrative Reinventing Email using REST. Thank you, philipmat, for that link.

A REST API should not contain any changes to the communication protocols…

…aside from filling-out or fixing the details of underspecified bits of standard protocols, such as HTTP’s PATCH method or Link header field. Workarounds for broken implementations (such as those browsers stupid enough to believe that HTML defines HTTP’s method set) should be defined separately, or at least in appendices, with an expectation that the workaround will eventually be obsolete. [Failure here implies that the resource interfaces are object-specific, not generic.]

Ok, Ruby on Rails provides a nice example of this when editing resources through the representation found at /:controller/:id/edit. Somewhere in that form, you’ll find a hidden form field named “_method” with the value of “put” in a form with a POST method. When the Rails stack parses the POST with that “_method” field, it changes the HTTP method from POST to PUT. They do this to compensate for the browser’s inability to properly construct a PUT request.

If, though, I went and hacked the Rails stack to allow me to put an invalid value in the “_method” field that did not match with HTTP’s methods. For example, if I created a form in an HTML page that had the hidden “_method” field with the value “reset” and, on the server-side, that translated to the invocation of the reset method on my object handling that value, I’ve done what Fielding warns against.

To do this correctly, you should follow the protocols strictly. If you need resource locking, for example, adopt the WebDAV protocol instead of strict HTTP. Don’t subvert the protocol to your needs; instead, re-engineer your needs to fit the protocol.

A REST API should spend almost all of its descriptive effort in defining the media type(s) used for representing resources and driving application state, …

…or in defining extended relation names and/or hypertext-enabled mark-up for existing standard media types. Any effort spent describing what methods to use on what URIs of interest should be entirely defined within the scope of the processing rules for a media type (and, in most cases, already defined by existing media types). [Failure here implies that out-of-band information is driving interaction instead of hypertext.]

Let’s say that you’ve decided to build a blog framework for Web 2.0 and HTML5. Since you already adopted two buzzwords, you decide to throw in a couple more: AJAX and REST. On top of it all, your awesome server framework can generate PDF versions of all the blog posts that it can serve! That’s awesome! All the user has to do is add “/pdf” to the URL. You know from that UX semiar that you attended last year that users don’t know how to type unless they can type into a Google search box. You’ll do it for them by providing a link but only for Firefox users because IE users have no brain and Chrome users offend you with their elitist attitude.

You get started building your blog application. When they arrive on your page, the JavaScript makes an AJAX call and gets back some HTML that contains an unordered list of links for different. You plop that into the DOM.

<ul class="blog-lig">
  <li><a href="/posts/hello-world.html">First post!</a></li>
  <li><a href="/posts/my-favorite-lunch.html">LUNCH!</a></li>
  <li><a href="/posts/i-love-justin-timberlake.html">JT and me!</a></li>
</ul>

Now, you write a GreaseMonkey script and allow people to download it from your blogging site. That script adapts the HTML into PDF-serving goodness.

<ul class="blog-lig">
  <li>
    <a href="/posts/hello-world.html">First post!</a>
    <a href="/posts/hello-world.html/pdf">(pdf)</a>
  </li>
  <li>
    <a href="/posts/my-favorite-lunch.html">LUNCH!</a>
    <a href="/posts/my-favorite-lunch.html/pdf">(pdf)</a>
  </li>
  <li>
    <a href="/posts/i-love-justin-timberlake.html">JT and me!</a>
    <a href="/posts/i-love-justin-timberlake.html/pdf">(pdf)</a>
  </li>
</ul>

You just invoked Dr. Fielding’s wrath!

As idiotic as this example seems, remember that REST APIs don’t just exist for browsers. REST describes building services for applications across a network. In your .NET Winforms application or Java SWT app you may decide to make such assumptions based on an interaction with a REST API that provides the services for your application. Unless the resource representation includes those links, you cannot assume those state transitions exist. Those assumptions represents “out-of-band information driving interaction.”

Messages in REST need to encapsulate all of the information needed to describe the message, as well as the transitions away from the application. In this case, you could use a URI Template as a link generator to provide the alternate paths to the PDFs. Then, you could use in-browser detection to determine if your user has Firefox, and only then create the associated links.

A REST API must not define fixed resource names or hierarchies (an obvious coupling of client and server)….

…Servers must have the freedom to control their own namespace. Instead, allow servers to instruct clients on how to construct appropriate URIs, such as is done in HTML forms and URI templates, by defining those instructions within media types and link relations. [Failure here implies that clients are assuming a resource structure due to out-of band information, such as a domain-specific standard, which is the data-oriented equivalent to RPC’s functional coupling].

Let’s use Ruby on Rails as an example and its RESTful API support. Assume that we have created an active model named Person, a controller named PeopleController with show, edit and update methods, and some views for the show, edit, and update browser requests. Normally, with these entities and files in place, a programmer would make an entry in the routes file along the lines of

resources :people, :only => {:show, :edit, :update}

which would, in turn, map the following paths in HTTP requests to these paths.

HTTP method path action
GET /people/:id show
GET /people/:id/edit edit
PUT /people/:id/ update

And, pretty much every Rails application works this way. That imposes a hierarchy on how to interact with resource on the server. You could type with real success directly into the browser to move from state to state in the application without worrying about coming across a piece of functionality that you would not expect.

The path in a URL should be opaque to the user. The benefit that you and I can understand it is incidental. If your request to a server for a representation of the resource at http://server/path/to/resource.html returns a nice HTML page, we should also allow the server to define its namespace such that http://server/23948729384792834928347.jpg returns that HTML page, if the server so desired.

Now, the Rails way does not strictly disobey REST since the easy way to use it follows a convention-over-configuration design. You could go in and list custom routes for any of those method+path combinations. Just make sure that your REST API does not require clients to konw some predefined route structure to use your service.

A REST API should never have “typed” resources that are significant to the client….

…Specification authors may use resource types for describing server implementation behind the interface, but those types must be irrelevant and invisible to the client. The only types that are significant to a client are the current representation’s media type and standardized relation names. [ditto]

Almost every so-called REST service that serves JSON has this problem. For example, you write a REST API for a resource that describes Mark Twain and it returns this HTTP response.

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json
Content-Length: 461

{
  "name": "Mark Twain",
  "notable feature": "crazy hair",
  "novels": [
    "Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The (1876)",
    "Prince and the Pauper, The (1881)",
    "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, The (1884)",
    "Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, A (1889)",
    "Tom Sawyer Abroad (1894)",
    "Pudd'nhead Wilson (1894)",
    "Tom Sawyer, Detective (1896)",
    "Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc, the (1896)",
    "Diaries of Adam and Eve (1906)"
  ]
}

Here’s the problem. You have a “typed resource” here. What you really know from this response and the metadata is only that it contains JSON and the value of the data in the body of the response. The entries name and novels have no semantic meaning in this case. The only way that the browser knows about how to do something with this is to represent it with out-of-band information, especially if you decide to allow the user to add another book to an incomplete list. Because this resource’s representation contains no links to other resources, your user has come to the end of the application.

We can fix this example a couple of ways. First of, application/json does not really give us much information. We’d really like for the message to describe the contents within the package so we can understand the semantic meaning of the data packet.

We can include header links in the server’s response to describe a relation for this data that understands how it works.

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json
Content-Length: 461
Link: <author-format-interpreter.js>; REL=JSON-interpreter

{
  "name": "Mark Twain",

The browser does not know how to interpret the relation “JSON-interpreter.” Instead, you should have code in the browser already that can read that header from an AJAX call and load the script file.

Option 2: Invent a new media type or microfomat

[Wikipedia has a nice article on microformats.]

For the most part, application/json fails almost every requirement of a media type for REST. It merely states that the body of the message contains JSON. When your browser loads something with a text/html type, it knows what to do with it: render it using its HTML parser. If the browser receives a message with a image/png media type, it knows to render bitmap information. application/json does not tell the browser anything about how to use the packet. And, if your JavaScript expects a certain data format without the advantage of a self-describing message, then you have failed REST.

To ensure that we have an author returning, we can invent a media type for the AJAX call to sense and handle it based on that media type rather than an expected format.

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/vnd.myapp-author
Content-Length: 461

{
  "name": "Mark Twain",

A REST API should be entered with no prior knowledge beyond the initial URI (bookmark) and set of standardized media types that are appropriate for the intended audience…

…(i.e., expected to be understood by any client that might use the API). From that point on, all application state transitions must be driven by client selection of server-provided choices that are present in the received representations or implied by the user’s manipulation of those representations. The transitions may be determined (or limited by) the client’s knowledge of media types and resource communication mechanisms, both of which may be improved on-the-fly (e.g., code-on-demand). [Failure here implies that out-of-band information is driving interaction instead of hypertext.]

If you took the representation from the previous section and generated links to Amazon Books that searched for each of the titles, that breaks this expectation of REST. If you invent a URI that leads from the current resource to another resource or POST back to this or another resource, you’ve boned your REST client.

Again, to fix this, use code-on-demand and URI Templates.

How does this relate to New (Old) Web Architecture?

I like what philipmat wrote about when he defended his response to “why a new way?” We can respond to every complaint with “if it complied with REST, that complaint would not exist.”

His proposal has a very REST-compliant feeling to it but breaks when we get to the example. I see an opportunity to make it REST-compliant through a few small augmentations, a couple of justifications, and a little celebration.

He proposes these steps for what I will now call “Bidirectional Operative RESTful Asynchronous Xeri-programming.” (When you hear in a couple of years that everyone wants to do that BORAX-programming, remember you heard it here first.)

  1. Navigate to /one_entity#clients/1, receive static HTML for the shell of the page and a link to a script to load entity data and another to load entity representation.
  2. Run a script to request entity data.
  3. Run a script to request entity template.
  4. When both return, merge data into template and display it (In this example’s case, merge with knockout.js.)

Dissection - Step 1

Understanding URL Fragments
I haven’t touched on URL fragments, yet, in my discussions about URIs. Since browsers don’t send them to the server, I really haven’t had need to talk about them; however, with BORAX-programming, it makes sense. A fragment points to a subentity of the entity represented by the resource at the end of the URL. In a browser that usually means an element with a specific name or id attribute to which the browser will automatically scroll. However, if the subentity does not readily exist in the entity and we have some way to discover its location, then nothing in REST says that we can’t traverse the application state to include that subentity in the current state.

The first step states “Give me the resource for one_entity and navigate to the sub-entity named by clients/1.” The JavaScript included with “one_entity” would then start the requests. Most likely, it knows how to do this because the JavaScript interprets the information after the fragment identifier as a relative URI. That does not comply with REST. However, we can make it comply with REST by using the link tag, a custom relation, changing the fragment to a Uniform Resource Name, and a URI template.

Now, our application will change its state to the resource found at /one_entity#urn:myapp:client:1.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <link id="page-entity" rel="unloaded-subentity" href="{/entity,id}">
    <script src="entity-load.js"></script>
...

The browser won’t know squat what to do with that link. Dr. Fielding knew that this would happen and included the code-on-demand portion of REST to augment the rendering of a resource. That’s what that script tag following the link tag does: run the URI template from the link that the browser can’t handle because it does not understand the “entity-representation” relation.

Furthermore, because the fragment now consists of a URN, because the URI standard allows us to translate URNs to URLs, because REST has allowed us to load the “entity-load.js” script-represented resource, because we have a link builder in the form a of URI template with a custom relation that our application can interpret, we have met all requirements of self-describing messages! That, friends, is REST.

Dissection - Steps 2 and 3

If a browser supported HTTP responses with a Content-Type of “multipart/related”, then we would have no need to require two steps where one would accomplish our task. This “plugs a hole” in the browser’s limited capabilities.

The “entity-load.js” script will make two related calls. The first should return the HTML representation of the template. The second should return the data representation of the resource. The key to successful REST compliance for this step: ensure that we return meaningful media types.

In the case of the HTML template and JSON which will constitute the body of the responses, we want to provide meaningful representations of those media types. Since, in this case, we have decided to use knockout.js, we’ll invent knockout-specific MIME types to describe the responses.

For the HTML template, the AJAX request should include

Accept: text/vnd.knockout-template

and for the JSON data, the AJAX request should include

Accept: text/vnd.knockout-data

If those two items came back in a “multipart/related” response from a server, it would make total sense to use knockout.js to combine them.

We’ve leveraged the power of media types to help render our specific content. Remember, if we have returned those two messages with the media types text/html and application/json, the message would imply that we should just render the HTML in the browser without connection to any templating needs and do nothing with the JSON because we cannot infer to plug that into the templating engine.

REST requires self-describing messages. We use custom media types to allow our application to understand the rendering intent of the content of each of those responses.

Dissection - Step 4

Now that the content has returned, we should ensure the correct media types exist for the responses, then let knockout do its magic. Shazam!

Real REST? I think so!

From the dissection of those steps, I’d say they stay well within the boundaries of REST over HTTP to make sure that we can have all of those execllent benefits that Dr. Fielding displays in all of the REST literature.

Remember, REST does not say anything about CRUD. REST does not actually mean GET, PUT, POST, and DELETE. HTTP grew up to embody the ideas of REST, not the other way around.

It demands that we have all of the transitions for the current state of our application contained within the resource returned in our request. It demands that we pay attention to the metadata of the resource representation.

REST also allows us to extend the capabilities of the client through code-on-demand to handle unknown media types and enrich the representation of the current UI.

As Dr. Fielding writes, REST is simple. You just have to think a long time, make many mistakes, and fail miserably a couple of times before it beomces simple in your mind.

Is this what philipmat wants? What he desires, covets, craves, lusts after?

I don’t think so. From what I understand of his motives, the custom media type issue just won’t work without some work on the part of the Web developer with custom mime-type mappings and custom file extensions. He wants to keep that interaction as simple as possible.

However, that issue seems the only thing standing between his divorced efforts of UI and server development. Perhaps he can think through the problem and engineer a better solution.

You can find my forked nodejs-served version of philipmat/webmvc@github over at realistschuckle/webmvc@github. Make sure that you checkout the borax branch!